Chapter by Chapter Flashcards

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Chapter 1

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[i] Chapter 1 The Lighting Design Profession


[q] What is a Visual Task?

[a] A vision related activity, such as reading a book.

[q] Which lighting credential is required by the the U.S. Government’s General Service Administration? 

[a] LC or Lighting Certified 

[q] What lighting credential can only be held by professional lighting designers?

[a] CLD or Certified Lighting Designer

[q] What is “distribution”? 

[a] The way light is applied over an area or throughout a space.


[q] What is daylighting?

[a] The use of controlled daylight to illuminate an architectural space.


[q] What is LEED short for?

[a] Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design 


[q] What light generating technology was introduced in the 2010s? 

[a] LEDs or Light Emitting Diodes 

[q] What is color rendering?

[a] The effect of a light source and its spectrum on the color appearance of objects.


[q] Name two professional organizations a lighting designer might join. 

[a] IES or Illuminating Engineering Society 

IALD or International Association of Lighting Designers

[q] List two professions, other than lighting designer, that may provide lighting design services. 

[a] Architect
Interior Designer
Electrical Engineer
Lighting Sales Person
Lighting Fixture Manufacturer
Electrical Contractor 





Chapter 2

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[i] Chapter 2 The Design Process and Lighting Design


[q] What happens in the Programming Phase?

[a] The design team analyzes and understands the owner’s needs for the building, then documents those needs in a building program. 


[q] What is a building program?

[a] Documentation that describes the scope of a building including types of spaces, the size and quantity of each type, infrastructure requirements, etc.


[q] What is the second step of the architectural design process? 

[a] Schematic Design 

[q] What design elements does a lighting designer decide on during design development?

[a] The light sources and luminaires to be used.
The arrangement or layout of luminaires – the lighting plan.
Sensors and control devices.
Details of special installations or custom luminaires.


[q] What is the name of the final phase where design work is still happening?

[a] Construction Documentation 

[q] When do contractors compete to win the project?

[a] Bidding Phase 

[q] What do lighting designers do during construction administration?

[a] Answer RFIs (Requests for Information).
Review shop drawings or submittals.
Inspect progress during site visits.
Focus all focusable luminaires.
Work with the controls system technician to set up the control system.


[q] What is the first step in any design process?

[a] Gather relevant information. 

[q] Who might the lighting designer speak to about project requirements?

[a] Architect
Interior Design
Electrical Engineer


[q] What is the key to a successful project?

[a] Collaboration 





Chapter 3

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[i] Chapter 3 Designing with Light


[q] Name the four Design Elements of Light. 

[a] Intensity

[q] What do we mean by distribution of light?

[a] The way light is spread over an area or throughout a space.



[q] What do we mean by movement of light?

[a] A change in the intensity, color, or distribution of light over time. 

[q] What are Richard Kelly’s Three Forms of Lightplay?

[a] Focal Glow
Ambient Luminescence
Play of Brilliants 

[q] Explain Ambient Luminescence.

[a] Shadowless illumination. 

[q] What do we mean by task lighting?

[a] Illumination provided to a specific area for the tasks performed there. 

[q] Why would you use accent lighting?

[a] To emphasize an object or draw attention. 

[q] What are the four ways we can think about luminaires as graphic elements in a space? 

[a] Point luminaires
Linear or line luminaires 
Plane or planar luminaires
Solid or 3D luminaires

[q] Name at least two ways of illuminating architecture. 

[a] Wall washing
Wall grazing
Cove lighting
Luminous surfaces 
Edge lighting

[q] Explain “layers of light”

[a] Using more than one lighting technique at a time to create the lighting composition in a space. 

[q] What are inspirational images?

[a] Images that convey some essential quality of light regardless of the image subject matter.



[q] What are precedent images?

[a] Images of existing projects of the same general type.


[q] What is the goal of a Pragmatic Design?

[a] To identify the lighting requirements and solve the challenges for the project.


[q] How does an Aesthetic Design build on a Pragmatic Design?

[a] It adds a focus on the mood, feeling, or environment that the lighting design is called on to create or support, while also meeting the project’s pragmatic requirements.


[q] What guides a Conceptual Design?

[a] A simile or metaphor that creates a visual or mental image that illustrates the design goal. 


[x] [restart]



Chapter 4

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[i] Chapter 4 What is Light?


[q] What did Euclid think light was? 

[a] Rays of Vision 

[q] Who proposed that light was rays emitted from luminous objects?

[a] Johannes Kepler 

[q] Who first proposed that white light was made up of rays of colored light?

[a] Sir Isaac Newton 

[q] What did Christiaan Huygens think light was? 

[a] Waves 

[q] If light is waves it needs a material to transmit it.  What was that material called?

[a] Ether 

[q] Who first proposed that light was made of particles?

[a] Sir Isaac Newton 

[q] What famous experiment demonstrated that light was waves, not particles?

[a] Double Slit Experiment 

[q] Who developed the double slit experiment showing that light was made of waves? 

[a] Thomas Young 

[q] Light is part of what wider range of energies?

[a] Electromagnetic Spectrum 

[q] What did Max Planck’s theory of energy, including light, say? 

[a] All energy is discrete packets called quanta.  



Chapter 5

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[i] Chapter 5 How We See


[q] True or false – sight is our most relied upon sense?

[a] True 

[q] What are primary light sources?

[a] The major contributors of light to a given environment 

[q] What do we call objects in the environment that reflect light?

[a] Secondary light sources 

[q] Light passes through what part of the eye first?

[a] Cornea 

[q] What part of the eye controls how much light enters the eye? 

[a] Pupil 

[q] What key cells are found in the retina? 

[a] Rods and cones 

[q] Are rods active at low light levels or high light levels?

[a] Low light levels 

[q] Which photoreceptors provide us with color vision? 

[a] Cones 

[q] What is accommodation?

[a] The eye’s ability to refocus on things both far and near. 

[q] What is adaptation? 

[a] The eye’s ability to adjust to different brightness levels. 

[q] What is foveal vision?

[a] Our 2° cone of detailed vision. 

[q] What is photopic vision?

[a] Vision at normal, daytime light levels. 

[q] Do we have scotopic vision at daytime light levels or nighttime light levels?

[a] Night light levels. 

[q] What is the proper term to describe our red, green, and blue cones

[a] Short wavelength sensitive, medium wavelength sensitive, and long wavelength sensitive cones.
S-, M-, and L-cones 

[q] What is the name of the sensitivity curve that results from combining the sensitivity of our S-, M-, and L-cones?

[a] V(λ)
(pronounced vee lambda) 


[q] The realization that color such as reddish-green aren’t seen led to the development of this theory. 

[a] Opponent process theory 

[q] Name the four key factors in visual performance.

[a] Size
Viewing time

[q] What do we call the phenomenon where the color appearance of objects changes with the overall illuminance level?

[a] Hunt effect 

[q] Is our perception of brightness relative or absolute?

[a] Relative 

[q] Is our perception of color relative or absolute?

[a] Relative 



Chapter 6

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[i] Chapter 6 Light and Perception


[q] What is perception?

[a] The way we regard, understand, or interpret something. 

[q] What do we call a mental framework that helps interpret new information?

[a] Schema 

[q] What is an idea, feeling, or opinion, especially one formed without conscious thought?

[a] An Impression 

[q] Can patterns of lighting produce consistent responses or impressions in the occupants of a room?

[a] Yes 

[q] How can we use light to reinforce the impression of spaciousness?

[a] Light the walls 

[q] How can we use light to reinforce the impression of relaxation?

[a] Nonuniform lighting of the walls, lower light levels, and warm light. 

[q] How can we use light to reinforce the impression of height?

[a] Light the ceiling or use a luminous ceiling. 

[q] How can we use light to reinforce the impression of privacy? 

[a] Nonuniform distribution of light, lower light levels in the area of the occupant, and higher light levels in the zones surrounding the occupant.




Chapter 7

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[i] Chapter 7 Distribution of Light


[q] How do we measure angle of incidence?

[a] In degrees from a line perpendicular to the surface. 

[q] Light strikes a surface and is reflected at an angle that mirrors the angle of incidence.  What kind of reflection is that? 

[a] Specular reflection 

[q] What is angle of incidence?

[a] The angle at which light strikes a surface. 

[q] Name two materials that exhibit semi-specular reflection. 

[a] Brushed metal
Wood or paint with a satin finish
Fabric with a sheen 

[q] Describe a matte surface.

[a] One where light is reflected uniformly in all directions. 

[q] What does a refractor do?

[a] Bends light 

[q] What does a diffuser do?

[a] Scatters light passing through it. 

[q] What word describes the percentage of light passing through a material? 

[a] Transmission 

[q] What do we call the multiple reflections of light by room surfaces?

[a] Interreflection 

[q] Which creates a sharper shadow, a small light source or a large one?

[a] A small light source. 

[q] What type of distribution does a luminaire have if all of its light illuminates the space without first bouncing off of architectural elements? 

[a] Direct distribution 

[q] You can’t see through a shop window because of the bright reflection of the building across the street.
What kind of glare is that?

[a] Reflected glare or veiling reflection 

[q] What is the difference between cut-off angle and shielding angle? 

[a] Cut-off angle is measured from the luminaire’s nadir, while shielding angle is measured from the ceiling plane. 

[q] How do we define flicker?

[a] The perception that a light source is varying in intensity over time. 

[q] Name two health impacts of flicker.

[a] Eye strain
Seizures in epileptics 




Chapter 8

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[i] Chapter 8 Light Sources and Lamps


[q] What is the dominant light source found in new luminaires today? 

[a] Solid State Lighting

[q] When describing the lumens per watt of a light source, are we talking about efficiency or efficacy? 

[a] Efficacy 

[q] The manufacturing process inevitably produces LEDs with different characteristics.  
What do we call manufacturer’s process for evaluating and sorting LEDs according to these differences?  

[a] Binning 

[q] Another name for LEDs is…

[a] Narrow band emitters 

[q] What is the most common method of creating white light with LEDs? 

[a] A blue LED (the blue pump) with a yellow phosphor. 

[q] What is the biggest problem with RGB luminaires?

[a] Poor color rendering 

[q] Organic LEDs have one unique characteristic.  What is it?

[a] They are a luminous surface, not a point source.

They are bendable. 

[q] What device to all high intensity discharge and fluorescent lamps require?

[a] Ballast 

[q] There are many types of high intensity discharge lamps.  Only one has color rendering characteristics appropriate for interior use.  What type is that? 

[a] Metal halide 

[q] Fluorescent lamps produce light in a three step process.  What are those steps? 

[a] 1. An electric arc passes through the tube, energizing mercury gas.
2. Mercury gas emits ultraviolet light.
3. Phosphors convert the ultraviolet light to visible light. 

[q] Two people are given credit for simultaneously developing commercially viable incandescent lamps.  Who are they? 

[a] Sir Joseph Swan
Thomas Edison 

[q] What material is used for an incandescent filament?

[a] Tungsten 

[q] Name three differences between standard incandescent and halogen lamps. 

[a] 1. Halogen lamps have a halogen fill gas.
2. Incandescent lamps have a glass envelope while halogens use quartz.
3. Halogen lamps produce a whiter (higher color temperature) light.
4. Halogen lamps are more energy efficient.
5. Halogen lamps have a longer life. 

[q] Lamp size is measured across the broadest diameter.  What is the unit of measurement?

[a] ⅛ inch 

[q] The part of a lamp that makes the electrical connection and holds the envelope is called… 

[a] The Base 

[q] The beam angle isn’t actually the fill angle measured at the edges of the beam of light.  What is it? 

[a] The angle through the center of the beam to where the light intensity has fallen to 50% of center beam brightness. 

[q] How do we measure field angle?

[a] The angle through the center of the beam to where the light intensity has fallen to 10% of center beam brightness.


[q] How can consumers learn about the light generated by a replacement lamp? 

[a] Look at the Lighting Facts label on the package. 

[q] Name two directional lamp shapes. 

[a] R or Reflector
PAR or Parabolic Aluminized Reflector
MR or Muti-Reflector
AR or Aluminum Reflector 

[q] Name three omnidirectional lamp shapes.

[a] A-lamp




Chapter 9

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[i] Chapter 9 The Science of Color in Light


[q] What is Colorimetry?

[a] The science of the measurement of color. 

[q] What do we call a model of human vision?

[a] A Standard Observer 

[q] What do we call the red, green, and blue sensitivity curves of human vision? 

[a] Color Matching Functions 

[q] Define “Chromaticity”

[a] The color of a light source independent of its intensity. 

[q] What is the most commonly used chromaticity diagram for lighting?

[a] CIE 1931 (x, y) Chromaticity Diagram 

[q] What outdated chromaticity diagram is used in calculating color temperature?

[a] CIE 1960 (u, v) Chromaticity Diagram 

[q] What chromaticity diagram should be used to calculate color differences? 

[a] CIE 1976 (u’, v’) 

[q] Define “color temperature”

[a] The temperature of a blackbody radiator, expressed in Kelvin, having a chromaticity equal to that of the light source.


[q] What is a blackbody radiator?

[a] A theoretical object that is a perfect absorber of all energy that strikes it, and that is an ideal emitter of energy. Its SPD is based on its temperature


[q] What do we call a graph that shows the energy at each wavelength of light?

[a] Spectral Power Distribution Curve, or SPD 

[q] What is the lowest CCT commonly available?

[a] 2700 K 

[q] The measurement of the pink or green shift of a white light source is…?

[a] Duv 

[q] If a light source has a negative Duv, is it pinkish or greenish white?

[a] Pinkish White 

[q] Manufacturers typically express chromaticity tolerances using these units. 

[a] MacAdam Ellipses 

[q] What do we call the effect of an illuminant on the color appearance of objects by conscious or subconscious comparison with their color appearance under a reference illuminant?


[a] Color Rendering 

[q] What is the most commonly used, although outdated, system for measuring color rendering?

[a] Color Rendering Index, or CRI 

[q] What are the two types of color shift?

[a] Hue Shift and Chroma Shift 

[q] TM-30s Fidelity Index Rf is analogous to this other index. 

[a] Color Rendition Index, or CRI 

[q] What does TM-30s Gamut Index Rg measure?

[a] A light source’s average change in chroma or saturation of object. 

[q] What is the difference between Color Stability and Color Consistency?  

[a] Color Stability refers to a light source emitting the same color throughout its life.
Color consistency referes to lamp-to-lamp color matching. 

[q] Two or more light sources of the same chromaticity but having different spectral power distribution are called…?

[a] Metamers 

[q] The perception that highly saturated colors are brighter than white light of the same intensity is called…? 

[a] The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect, or HK effect 

[q] Which is true, that objects have a “real” color or that they have an “apparent” color?

[a] Apparent Color 

[q] The perception that colors of objects remain unchanged across significant changes in illumination color and illuminance level is called..?

[a] Color Constancy 

[q] What is Chromatic Adaptation?

[a] An observer’s ability to perceive colors of objects independent of changes in the light source.


[q] What are the primary colors of light?

[a] Red, Green, and Blue 

[q] What are the secondary colors of light?

[a] Amber, Cyan, and Magenta 

[q] Define Additive Mixing

[a] Combining the colored light from two sources on a surface producing the appearance of a third color.


[q] What is subtractive mixing?

[a] Altering the color of light by using a glass or plastic filter to remove unwanted wavelengths.


[q] How does vision differ from our other senses?

[a] We can’t selectively filter the sensory input. 

[x] [restart]



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